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he key to fame for Hipparion is the amazing success that this genus exhibited.‭ ‬Although perhaps nothing special in terms of appearance,‭ ‬Hipparion appeared at the start of the Miocene period and continued to thrive until well into the mid Pleistocene,‭ ‬surviving for some twenty-two million years.‭ ‬In the space of this time Hipparion colonised most of the major continents with the exception of Antarctica,‭ ‬Australia and South America.‭ ‬The former two were separated by sea preventing land animals from colonising these continents.‭ ‬South America was not joined to North America until the creation of the Isthmus of Panama in the late Pliocene,‭ ‬and since North American remains of Hipparion are dated to the end of the Miocene at latest,‭ ‬it’s probable that Hipparion was not around in this continent at a time to take part in the Great American Interchange which saw a mixing of previously isolated animals,‭ ‬thus missing the chance to colonise South America as well.